PERU

Analysis of 700,000 years of sediment from an Andean lake shows that tropical mountain glaciers in the Southern Hemisphere grow and shrink in sync with ice caps in the Northern Hemisphere, despite local differences in climate and sunlight. They are shaped by greenhouse gases, Earth’s orbit, and other global factors.

CANADA

The researchers used key photos of amateur astronomers to explain a mysterious red glow that appears next to the Northern Lights. It is likely caused by electrons, a byproduct of the protons that trigger the typical green aurora, raining down on the Earth’s magnetic field.

SOUTH AFRICA

A new sediment dating method, less influenced by the shifting of rock strata over time, has shown that early prehuman fossils found near Johannesburg are a million years older than previously thought, potentially old enough to add a new branch to the human evolutionary tree.

ITALY

Pollen and plant fragments from the wine jars in the port of San Felice Circeo reveal that ancient Roman winemakers used local grapes but imported pine tar from hundreds of miles away to seal the jars and perhaps to flavor the wine.

IRAQ

This year, a 3,400-year-old city reemerged from the Tigris River during a drought. Archaeologists used the drought spell to further explore the ruins, finding well-preserved clay walls, cuneiform tablets, and a multi-story storage building.

CAMBODIA

A 661-pound endangered giant stingray from the Mekong River may be the largest freshwater fish ever caught. The approximately 13-foot-long behemoth was equipped with a tracker and transmitter to examine the beam’s migration and behavior.